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What Is An Ebike & How Do They Work?

What Is An Ebike & How Do They Work?

February 2, 2024

An ebike, short for electric bicycle, is a bicycle that is equipped with an electric motor to assist with pedaling. This motor can be activated by the rider's pedal action, a throttle, or a combination of both.

In this articles we’ll walk you through the basics, including the following:

  1. 1. How Do Ebikes Work?
  2. 2. What Is The Best Ebike?
  3. 3. Types of Ebikes
  4. 4. Benefits of Riding an Ebike
  5. 5. Tips For First-Time Ebike Buyers
  6. 6. Ebike Regulations and Safety

How Do Ebikes Work?

Ebikes are electric-powered bicycles that blend traditional cycling with modern technology. They work like regular bikes but have an electric motor powered by a rechargeable battery. This motor helps with pedaling, making it easier to ride over hills and longer distances. Some ebikes also have a throttle for motor power without pedaling.

Ebikes make cycling more accessible and less tiring, ideal for leisure, commuting, or carrying cargo, offering a green alternative to conventional transportation.

Electric Motor

The motor provides additional power to the wheels, making it easier to pedal, especially uphill or over long distances.


Ebikes are powered by rechargeable batteries. The range of the bike (how far it can go on one charge) depends on the battery capacity, the rider's weight, the terrain, and how much the rider uses the motor.

Pedal Assist

Most ebikes come with a pedal assist system (PAS). When you pedal, the motor kicks in to help you. You can usually adjust the level of assistance.

Throttle Mechanism

Some ebikes have a throttle on the handlebars that allows you to engage the motor without pedaling.


Ebikes have a regulated maximum speed for motor assistance, often around 20 mph (32 km/h) in many places, but this can vary based on local laws.

What Is The Best Ebike?

What’s the best ebike? First evaluate what you need from it. Are you looking for a daily commuter to navigate city streets, a rugged bike for off-road adventures, a compact option for easy storage and transport, or a cargo bike for hauling goods?

Consider the distance you'll travel, the type of terrain you'll encounter, and your storage options. It's also important to think about your fitness level and how much pedal assistance you might need. Assessing your needs will help you narrow down the types of ebikes that might be best for you.

Types of Ebikes

Commuter Ebikes

Commuter ebikes are designed for the everyday rider who needs a reliable, efficient way to navigate through city streets and urban environments. These bikes typically feature a comfortable upright riding position, smooth tires for easy rolling on pavement, and often come equipped with practical accessories like lights, fenders, and racks.

The electric assist on these bikes is tuned to make daily commutes less strenuous, helping riders tackle hills and longer distances without breaking a sweat. With their blend of convenience and performance, commuter ebikes are the perfect choice for those looking to replace or complement their traditional means of transportation.

Fat Tire Ebikes

Fat tire ebikes are a unique and versatile category of electric bicycles, distinguished by their wide, oversized tires. These tires, typically 4 inches or broader, provide enhanced stability and traction, making fat tire ebikes ideal for a variety of terrains, from snowy paths and sandy beaches to rocky trails and urban roads.

The extra surface area of the tires allows for a smoother ride over bumps and uneven surfaces, offering a comfortable experience. Read more about what’s the best fat tire ebike for you.

Folding Ebikes

Folding ebikes are the epitome of convenience and portability. These compact bikes can be easily folded down to a manageable size, making them perfect for city dwellers with limited storage space or commuters who combine cycling with public transport.

Despite their small size, folding ebikes don't compromise on performance. They often feature efficient motors and batteries that provide ample power and range for daily commutes and urban explorations. Lightweight yet durable, these bikes are designed for ease of use, offering a practical and flexible solution for the modern urbanite.

Cargo Ebikes

Cargo ebikes are designed to carry loads, be it groceries, gear, or even children. They are an eco-friendly alternative to a car for running errands or transporting goods around town. With a sturdy frame and often an extended wheelbase, these bikes offer various cargo-carrying options, such as front baskets, rear racks, or even large boxes.

The electric assist is a game-changer, making it possible to haul significant weight without the strain associated with traditional cargo bikes. Ideal for families and businesses, cargo ebikes are transforming how goods and people move in an urban setting, combining utility with sustainability.

Key Features to Consider

When buying an ebike, it's crucial to consider key features like battery life, motor type, bike weight, range, and comfort. Each factor affects the bike's performance and how well it suits your needs, whether for city commuting, off-road riding, or casual cycling. This guide will help you choose the right ebike for your lifestyle and riding purposes.

Battery Life

The battery dictates how far you can go on a single charge. Look for a battery that offers enough range for your typical ride, keeping in mind that factors like terrain, rider weight, and level of assistance can affect battery life.

Motor Type

There are two main types of motors: hub motors, which are directly in one of the wheels, and mid-drive motors, which are positioned near the bike's center. Mid-drive motors are often better for hilly areas, while hub motors are typically quieter and more straightforward.

Power and Speed

Check the motor's power output, usually in watts, as it affects the bike's ability to climb hills and reach speeds. Also, be aware of legal speed limits for ebikes in your area.

Top Speed

Speed is a key factor in ebikes, affecting how fast you can go and the excitement of the ride. The motor's power, often limited by safety regulations, usually allows ebikes to reach speeds up to 20 mph for pedal-assist and 28 mph for more powerful models. Your speed can also vary based on how much you pedal, the terrain, and local speed limits.

While faster ebikes offer a quicker commute and more thrill, they require careful handling and adherence to local laws, like helmet requirements. For city riding, a standard-speed ebike is often safer and more practical.

Ebike Range

The range of an ebike, or how far it can go on one charge, largely depends on battery capacity, measured in watt-hours (Wh). Factors like your weight, the terrain, weather, and how much you use the pedal assist also affect the range. Uphill rides or strong winds can reduce it.

For short commutes, a smaller battery is fine, but for longer rides, choose a higher capacity battery. Remember, batteries may lose efficiency over time, so extra range is helpful for long-term use.

Bike Weight

Ebikes are heavier than regular bikes due to their motor and battery, with weight varying based on design and parts. Lighter ebikes are easier to carry and lift but heavier ones tend to be more stable and durable.

Choose based on your use: lighter bikes are better for those living in apartments or using public transport, while heavier bikes suit leisure rides or flat terrain commuting.

Comfort and Ergonomics

Consider the frame design, seat comfort, and handlebar shape. A comfortable ebike can significantly enhance your riding experience, especially on longer journeys.

Ebike Pricing

Ebikes come in a wide range of prices, typically from around $1,000 for basic models to over $5,000 for high-end versions. Generally, the price depends on factors like motor and battery quality, frame materials, and additional features like integrated lights or GPS. Decide on a budget that aligns with your needs and preferences.

Benefits of Riding an Ebike

Riding an ebike offers more than just fun. It's a blend of traditional cycling and electric assistance that suits all ages and fitness levels. Ebikes help the environment by cutting down on carbon emissions, boost your health and fitness, and are a cost-effective way to travel.

They're not just a means of getting around; they're a lifestyle choice that combines efficiency, sustainability, and enjoyment. Ebikes are great for everything from daily commutes to leisurely rides and adventurous explorations, offering a wide range of benefits.

Health and Fitness

While ebikes provide electric assistance, they still offer a great opportunity for physical exercise. Riders can adjust the level of pedal assistance, which means they can still get a good workout, especially on longer rides or when tackling hills.

In a 2021 study at Miami University, they found “that while riders engage in higher intensity exercise when using a non-electric bike, the amount of exertion on the electric bike still provided the moderate intensity exercise level that is recommended to avoid or reduce the risk of serious health conditions.”

This makes ebikes an excellent choice for those looking to improve their fitness levels, lose weight, or simply incorporate more physical activity into their daily routine in a fun and enjoyable way.


Ebikes are highly cost-effective compared to cars. They are cheaper to purchase, and the costs of charging an ebike are significantly lower than fueling a car. Additionally, ebikes require less maintenance than cars and do not incur high costs like insurance, registration, or parking fees. This makes them a financially smart choice for daily commuting and urban travel.

The average dollar amount a person can save per year by switching to ebikes for their daily commute comes a whopping $5,000. This includes $4k in average auto repairs in 2023. Here’s how we got that number:

  • Average gas price: $3.20
  • Average gas tank: 14 gallons
  • Average miles per gallon: 25
  • Average miles commute: 16 miles one way (32 total)
  • 32 miles * 5 days/week * 4 weeks/month * 12 mo/year =7680 miles a year
  • 7680 miles a year / 25 miles per gallon =307.2 gallons/year
  • 307.2 gallons/year * $3.2/gallon = $983.04 saved/year

Environmental Impact

Riding an ebike has a significantly lower environmental footprint compared to driving a car. Ebikes emit no pollutants and require much less energy to operate. By choosing an ebike over a car, riders contribute to reducing traffic congestion and air pollution, making a positive impact on urban air quality and overall environmental health.

As they run on electricity, ebikes are also more energy-efficient and can be charged using renewable energy sources, further reducing their environmental impact.

Tips for First-Time Ebike Buyers

Determine Your Needs

Assess how you plan to use the ebike. Whether it's for commuting, mountain biking, leisure rides, or running errands will influence the type of ebike you should consider.

Understand Motor and Battery Specifications

Learn about the motor types (hub vs. mid-drive) and battery capacity (measured in watt-hours). These will affect performance, range, and overall riding experience.

Test Ride Multiple Models

Just like a regular bike, the feel of an ebike is crucial. Test ride various models to understand how each one handles and responds to your riding style. Try an ebike at one of these local bike shops.

Consider the Range

Think about the distance you'll travel on a single charge. Make sure the battery range meets or exceeds your daily commute or typical ride length.

Look into the Brand's Reputation

Research the brand's reliability, customer service, and warranty. Reading reviews and seeking recommendations can provide valuable insights.

Budget Appropriately

Ebikes come in a wide price range. While it's tempting to go for cheaper options, investing in a quality ebike from a reputable brand can save you money in the long run on maintenance and replacements.

Safety Features

Check for essential safety features like effective brakes, lights, and reflectors, especially if you'll be riding in traffic or low-light conditions.

Learn About Maintenance

Ebikes require regular maintenance, similar to traditional bikes, but with added attention to the electric components. Understanding basic maintenance can prolong the life of your ebike.

Consider Storage and Transportation

Make sure you have a safe place to store your ebike, protecting it from harsh weather conditions and theft. If you plan to transport the bike, consider its weight and whether you'll need a car rack.

Legal Requirements

Be aware of the local laws regarding ebikes, such as speed limits, age requirements, and whether specific bike paths or roads are off-limits.

Ebike Regulations and Safety

Riding ebikes involves knowing not just their benefits, but also the rules and safety measures for their use. As ebikes become more popular, they're subject to specific regulations like speed limits, helmet laws, and areas where they can be used.

It's crucial for riders to understand these rules and safety tips for a safe, enjoyable experience that also respects local laws and community standards. In addition, while there are federal laws surrounding ebike classifications, each state is responsible to classify them and set regulations by their own standards.

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